Chloroquine has been extensively used in mass drug administrations, which may have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistance. It is recommended to check if chloroquine is still effective in the region prior to using it. How much plaquenil can you take with imuran Effect of chloroquine in pregnancy and breastfeeding Plaquenil cause anemia Hydroxychloroquine can cause irreversible retinal toxicity, resulting in bilateral bull’s eye retinopathy, but is regarded as less toxic to the retina than chloroquine and it does not cause the corneal deposits seen with chloroquine therapy. Chloroquine CQ is used to prevent and treat malaria and amebiasis, while hydroxychloroquine HCQ, a less toxic metabolite of chloroquine, is used to treat rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus SLE, rheumatoid arthritis RA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis JIA and Sjogren's syndrome. Chloroquine was originally used as an anti-malarial therapeutic. Chloroquine is now uncommonly used in favor of its derivative hydroxychloroquine. In the United States, hydroxychloroquine is most often used for its anti-inflammatory effects in rheumatology and dermatology. Its toxic effects on the retina are seen in the macula. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend against treatment of malaria with chloroquine alone due to more effective combinations. In areas where resistance is present, other antimalarials, such as mefloquine or atovaquone, may be used instead. Toxicity of chloroquine Review of side effects and toxicity of chloroquine / by H., Chloroquine And Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf Plaquenil lyme disease treatmentHydroxychloroquine elevated serum porphyrinPlaquenil and anthrax vaccinePlaquenil side effects gums This article is from June 2011 and may contain outdated material. Download PDF. Many systemic medications may cause retinal toxicity. One such commonly used medication for dermatologic and rheumatologic inflammatory conditions is hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil, a chloroquine derivative. Hydroxychloroquine-Induced Retinal Toxicity - American.. Hydroxychloroquine toxicity - EyeWiki. A Coronavirus Question Chloroquine After Fluoroquinolones? - My Quin Story. Retina Manifestations of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity. The classical definition of chloroquine toxicity is characterized by bilateral pigmentary change of the macula usually sparing the fovea. This has come to be known as bull’s-eye maculopathy. The retinal periphery may also be involved but infrequently. Chloroquine is a 9-aminoquinoline known since 1934. Apart from its well-known antimalarial effects, the drug has interesting biochemical properties that might be applied against some viral infections. Chloroquine exerts direct antiviral effects, inhibiting pH-dependent steps of the replication of several viruses including members of the flaviviruses, retroviruses, and coronaviruses. Its best. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine belong to the quinolone family. They are related drugs with similar clinical indications for use and similar manifestations of retinal toxicity, although their therapeutic and toxic doses differ.