According to legend it was first brought to Europe by a Countess who had been treated with it in Peru in the 1600s. In 1820, two French chemists isolated quinine from the cinchona bark and quinine became a treatment of reference for intermittent fever throughout the world. Quinine remains an important and effective treatment for malaria today, despite sporadic observations of quinine resistance. Maker of plaquenil Chloroquine solubility Hydroxychloroquine and reduction of metastasis Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg t Chloroquine has been the first-line treatment of malaria in much of the world for most of the past 60 years. Absolute bioavailability is 70 to 75% while peak plasma concentrations are reached within two hours of oral administration. Chloroquine is an anti-malaria medicine that works by interfering with the growth of parasites in the red blood cells of the human body. Parasites that cause malaria typically enter the body through the bite of a mosquito. Malaria is common in areas such as Africa, South America, and Southern Asia. Dec 16, 2008 Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy IPTp with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine SP reduces the incidence of low birth-weight, pre-term delivery, intrauterine growth-retardation and maternal anaemia. However, the public health benefits of IPTp are declining due to SP resistance. These compounds belonged to a new class of antimalarials, the four-amino quinolines. Research by German scientists to discover a substitute for quinine led to the synthesis in 1934 of Resochin (chloroquine) and Sontochin (3-methyl-chloroquine). Chloroquine sp History of antimalarials Medicines for Malaria Venture, Chloroquine Uses, Side Effects & Warnings - Plaquenil lupus A severe eye problem has happened with chloroquine. This may lead to lasting eyesight problems. The risk may be higher if you have some types of eye or kidney problems. The risk may also be higher with some doses of chloroquine, if you use chloroquine for longer than 5 years, or if you take certain other drugs like tamoxifen. Chloroquine Indications, Side Effects, Warnings -. Azithromycin-chloroquine and the intermittent preventive.. Chloroquine Aralen - Side Effects, Dosage, Interactions.. Chloroquine is very toxic in overdosage; overdosage is extremely hazardous and difficult to treat. Urgent advice from the National Poisons Information Service is essential. Life-threatening features include arrhythmias which can have a very rapid onset and convulsions which can be intractable. Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline with antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and potential chemosensitization and radiosensitization activities. Although the mechanism is not well understood, chloroquine is shown to inhibit the parasitic enzyme heme polymerase that converts the toxic heme into non-toxic hemazoin, thereby resulting in the accumulation of toxic heme within the parasite. NCI-H929 EV and miR-137 OE cells were treated with ATM activator Chloroquine Phosphate CQ, specific ATM inhibitor KU-55933, and ATR inhibitor AZ20 for 12 hr. Immunoblotting showed the expression of p-ATM, p-Chk2, p-BRCA1, p-ATR and p-Chk1.